The success of conception largely depends on the quality of the sperm, and an important factor in its quality is the indicator of sperm activity. About 40% of cases of absence of pregnancy in a couple, provided the partner is in full reproductive health, are due to low sperm motility. Spermatozoa must be highly active and move along a straight or slightly rounded trajectory – only in this case successful natural fertilization is possible.
A condition characterized by low sperm motility is called asthenozoospermia.
The activity of male germ cells depends on several factors: the density of the seminal fluid and the morphological structure of the cells themselves. The tail is responsible for the speed and trajectory of the sperm. Recent discoveries have proven that the tail is a proton channel. As soon as the male reproductive cell enters the aggressive environment of the female genital tract, the channels open and protons are released. Protons reduce the acidity of the vaginal fluid. The sperm is designed in such a way that it moves in the direction of decreasing acidity, that is, towards the egg. At the same time, the process of opening proton channels imparts acceleration to the tail, which makes it move.
The degree of sperm motility, along with other parameters of sperm quality, is determined using a spermogram.
Today, to assess sperm motility, it is customary to divide into three categories:
Group A: cells move quickly in a straight or slightly rounded path. The normal sperm velocity is at least 25 microns / s. For a successful natural conception of category A spermatozoa in the ejaculate of a healthy man should be at least 32%.
Group B: motile spermatozoa do not move along a linear trajectory, oscillate or move in a circle with a small radius. The reason for this “behavior” lies in the abnormal structure of the neck or tail of the cell.
Group C: immotile sperm. Prolonged abstinence before taking a spermogram may be one of the reasons for the high concentration of such cells.
The method of increasing the activity of sedentary spermatozoa is selected depending on the underlying causes that led to this condition. It is necessary to treat systemic diseases, to stop inflammatory and infectious processes in time. In the case of idiopathic asthenozoospermia, it may be sufficient to eliminate the influence of negative factors.
Traditional treatment in most cases is aimed at improving the blood supply to the testicles. Surgical intervention is recommended for structural changes in the organs of the scrotum and testicles, as well as for diseases such as varicocele and hydrocele.
In the absence of clearly expressed reasons for poor sperm motility, they resort to physiotherapy, prescribe the intake of dietary supplements. These techniques involve a long course of treatment to cover the entire period of spermatogenesis, which lasts an average of 70–75 days.
The mobility of the germ cells and the general condition of the man’s body is strongly influenced by the diet, which must be balanced and include foods rich in the following vitamins, minerals and trace elements:
Hormone therapy may also be prescribed to increase testosterone levels.
It is useful for a man of reproductive age who is preparing to become a father to know what sperm motility depends on.
Excellent results for improving the quality of ejaculate give a good rest, a balanced diet, moderate physical activity (swimming, cycling, running), the absence of stressful situations, physical overload.
In addition, the influence of the influence of the electromagnetic field and the increased background radiation should be avoided. It is necessary to maintain a high level of immunity.
To regularly renew sperm and maintain an active spermatogenesis process, it is necessary to have a regular sex life.
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