Erythrocytes in the spermogram: what does it mean and is it dangerous
In accordance with WHO standards, erythrocytes in the spermogram should not be present in any quantity. Their presence may indicate a serious pathology in the male reproductive system. This condition is called hemospermia.
Single erythrocytes can coexist with leukocytes and epithelial cells in a spermogram in small numbers so that this is not considered a deviation from the norm. Red blood cells can enter the semen due to rupture of small vessels during intercourse or get out of the partner’s genital tract. In this case, it is recommended to take a second spermogram in 5-7 days. This condition is called conditional or false hemospermia.
Causes of red blood cells in semen
The reasons for the appearance of erythrocytes in the spermogram can be of an everyday or pathological nature. As already mentioned, false hemospermia can occur for the following reasons:
- long-term abstinence:
- damage to small vessels during intercourse;
- getting from the female genital tract;
- in case of injury, including the operating room. For example, after a prostate biopsy, red blood cells may be present in semen even after 3-4 weeks.
The constant presence of red blood cells in the spermogram can be caused by the following pathologies and diseases:
- acute and chronic inflammation of the genitourinary system: orchitis, vesiculitis, prostatitis, epididymitis, etc. Epididymitis and nonspecific urethritis can be detected by the presence of a large number of epithelial cells in the spermogram;
- sexually transmitted infections: mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and others;
- neoplasms in the prostate, both benign and malignant;
- blockage of the vas deferens (obstruction);
- vascular pathology: varicocele, hemangioma and others;
- inflammation or kidney stones.
To establish the cause of the appearance of erythrocytes and epithelial cells in the spermogram, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive examination of the whole organism.
What to do when red blood cells appear in semen?
First of all, you shouldn’t panic. Often, erythrocytes in the spermogram are found in sexually active young men under 40 due to mechanical damage to blood vessels, trauma, overexertion, and severe pathologies associated with hemospermia occur only in 2% of cases. Among elderly men, this figure can reach 14%, and in this case it is often necessary to ascertain the presence of a serious pathology.
The first thing to do when red blood cells are found in a spermogram is to contact a urologist or andrologist. It is absolutely necessary to do this if the semen is unnaturally dark or rusty red in color.
Can a healthy man have red blood cells in semen?
In a healthy man, erythrocytes in the spermogram can be found for the reasons stated above. If these cases are isolated, there is no need to worry, you just need to monitor the state of the sperm for one to two weeks. But for your own peace of mind, you can consult a doctor and undergo an examination, which must be started with a spermogram.
Preparation for spermogram
It is necessary to carefully prepare for the delivery of ejaculate for analysis. Only in this case, you can be sure that there is no influence of random factors on the state of the sperm.
Recommendations to be followed before the procedure:
- during 2-4 days to observe sexual rest. No longer needed, as it is fraught with sperm stagnation, which can distort the clinical picture;
- a week before the examination, exclude alcohol and refrain from smoking. These habits have a depressing effect on the process of spermatogenesis;
- try to avoid excessive physical exertion, including in the gym, emotional stress;
- you can not visit the bathhouse and sauna, spend a lot of time in the sun or hot production. Also, on the way to the clinic for the analysis, it is advisable to turn off the heated seats in the car;
- stop taking medications that are not prescribed for health reasons.
- After an illness, including a cold, especially if antibiotics were taken during this period, the day of taking the spermogram should be postponed for at least three weeks.
The best and most reliable results are obtained if the spermogram is taken after a vacation or weekend. Healthy sleep, walks in the fresh air, light physical activity, lack of stress – all this has a positive effect on the state of sperm.
The presence of erythrocytes in the spermogram is an infrequent phenomenon. If they appear for some time, you need to pay close attention to this and consult a doctor. It is advisable to develop the habit of undergoing an annual examination by a urologist in order to identify possible pathologies at an early stage.
A healthy lifestyle, a constant sexual partner, light physical activity, a calm emotional background, a balanced diet contribute to the overall health of the body and the good condition of sperm.