The general biological basis of human sexuality is the instinct of procreation, its specific manifestations (sexual desire, the division of functions between the sexes, especially the reproductive cycle, the ritual of courtship, the technique of sexual intercourse, etc.). Along with the instinctive, genetically given to the body program, normal sexual behavior is ensured through learning, through communication with peers, parents, etc. Formation of healthy sexuality is a complex, sometimes contradictory process. A person is characterized by multiple substitution forms of sex and sexual symbols, which can serve as visual images, nudity, intimate items of clothing, etc., Normally, they play a supporting role, provoking or increasing sexual desire, intensifying love experiences. However, in the case of sustained or exceptional fixation on them, these additional elements of the sexual repertoire may become dominant, under certain conditions, reaching a pathological level.
One of the main features of human sexuality is that the experiences associated with the satisfaction of sexual needs are separated from its original biological goal – the extension of the genus. This created the fundamental possibility of humanizing sexual feelings, transforming the elementary sexual instinct into human love, when the relationship between a man and a woman serves not only as a means of reproduction and a source of sensual pleasure, but also gives the highest happiness to deep psychological and spiritual intimacy. In humans, interpersonal and spiritual intercourse is a necessary component along with bodily, genital interaction as an essential component. This results in a huge variety of ways to express human sexuality. Extragenital forms of sexual life are distinguished: platonic love, superficial erotic caresses, dances, and its genital forms. The latter include: substitution (vicarious) forms of sexual activity (wet dreams, erotic dreams, erotic fantasies, masturbation, virtual sex, petting); surrogate forms of coitus (navarsadata, coitus between the thighs, on the eve of the vagina, in the anus, etc.); normative genital-genital intercourse; orogenital contacts (blowjob, cunnilingus); sexual acts with animals and inanimate objects.
Regulatory sexual intercourse involves genital-genital contact between two individuals in order to obtain sexual satisfaction and / or conception. I. O. Kohn emphasizes that this is a heterosexual intercourse, that is, the introduction of the male penis into the vagina. G. S. Vasilchenko (1977), along with the normative heterosexual coitus, distinguishes his surrogate forms, to which he refers:
The vestibular coitus, that is, sexual intercourse is carried out on the threshold of the vagina (the male member is located between the woman’s sexual lips). It is usually practiced in the following cases: 1) as a way to prevent the violation of the virginal membrane and the onset of pregnancy; 2) when insufficient erection does not allow introitus; 3) if an orgasm in a woman occurs only with intense exposure to the clitoris and labia, and vaginal frictions are indifferent to her or even unpleasant.
Coitus between the thighs, coitus between the breasts (navarsadata) and the axillary coitus are usually used to achieve the first two goals described above, as well as with high erogenous sensitivity in the woman, respectively, mammary glands, inner thighs or axillary hollows, or during sexual contact during the menstrual period .
Coitus in the anus (can be heterosexual and homosexual). It is sometimes believed that homosexuals predominantly practice such sexual intercourse. However, a significant number of heterosexual couples use anal sex as a very exciting variant of sexual contact, which can cause an orgasm in both men and women. Nevertheless, many people reject this form of coitus as unhygienic, unnatural, and simply unpleasant. Indeed, during stimulation, the anal sphincter is usually severely compressed, so attempts to quickly and vigorously insert the penis into the rectum can be very painful and sometimes lead to injury. To reduce the risk of injury to a minimum, the anus is abundantly smeared with a cream.
According to the peculiarities of carrying out normative coitus, the following options are distinguished: interrupted coitus, in which a man, sensing the approach of ejaculation, in order to prevent pregnancy, extracts the penis from the vagina and ejaculation occurs outside the woman’s genitals; prolonged coitus (arbitrarily delayed in order to obtain the greatest satisfaction); incomplete coitus, in which there are no ejaculation and orgasm.
When conducting a heterosexual coitus, the relative position of the bodies of the partners may vary depending on individual preferences and mutual wishes.
Gender – any psychological or behavioral properties associated with masculinity or femininity and presumably distinguishing men from women. In a narrower sense, the term “gender” means “social gender,” that is, socially determined roles, identities, and areas of activity of men and women, which depend not on the biological differences between the sexes, but on the social organization of society. Gender is a kind of social construct, not a natural given. Gender affiliation implies gender identity and self-determination, gender identity.
Gender identity is a fundamental (basic) sense of belonging to a particular sex, as a result of which the individual realizes that he is a man, a woman, or a being of intermediate (third) sex. Gender identity is developed as a result of the complex interaction of the natural dispositions of man and the processes of socialization, “coding”. Moreover, the subject is an active participant in this process, accepting or rejecting the social roles and behaviors proposed to him. It is possible to “recoding” gender identity, that is, a change of gender. This occurs in cases where an individual cannot categorically accept the gender status of a man or a woman, obtained according to his anatomical gender, as a result of which he experiences permanent mental discomfort and insists on changing it in accordance with sexual identity (with transsexualism). It also highlights the gender role (syn. Sexual role), which designates the normative prescriptions and expectations that society (relevant culture) has for male or female behavior and is actually a criterion for assessing the masculinity / femininity of a child or adult.
Many people consider gender characteristics to be unambiguous, closely related to gender. For example, if a woman shows passivity and tenderness, then she will discover these qualities in any roles and situations. But in life everything can be different. Men and women interact with each other in different social situations, while fulfilling specific social roles. In different spheres of activity, for example, in the family and in the workplace, the character of gender differentiation often does not coincide. Traditionally, the need for social success is higher among men, so modern business women are perceived as something new and unprecedented. But if in the old historical conditions an ambitious woman, as a rule, could make a career only indirectly, for example, by successfully getting married, then today she can independently achieve high social status.
Changes in the position of women in society entail a different motivation and nature of gender relations. However, one should not identify the social equality of men and women with their sameness and leveling of gender (gender-role) differences, as called for by radical-minded representatives of the feminist movement. It would be a mistake to completely ignore cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity, since they are important for harmonious partnerships. When a man is a man and a woman is a woman, they seek and find in each other what each of them lacks. If the gender roles are “confused” and in the behavior of an individual there is much that traditionally correlates with the opposite sex, he is often alone, because he has no inner need for close relationships with another person.
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